Arts and Crafts
The Arts and Crafts movement emerged in Great Britain in the second half of the 19th century as a reaction against the mass-produced and banal aesthetic of the Industrial revolution. Dedicated to recapturing the spirit and quality of medieval craftsmanship, the English reformer, poet and designer William Morris and his associates in the Morris, Marshall and Faulkner Company (1861) produced hand-crafted furniture, jewelry, textiles, wallpaper and metal work. By the late 1880s the movement had widened its appeal to a new generation of architects and designers whose work represented a protest against design as a marketed affair controlled by salesmen, advertisers and industry.
In the United States, the Arts and Crafts movement represented the first phase of the American Modern movement, leading to two distinct American design traditions – the Prairie style (1900-1920) which began in Chicago under Frank Lloyd Wright and the Craftsman Style (1905-1930), which was started in Southern California by the Greene brothers. Both styles eschewed formal historic precedents by modernizing ornamentation to remove its historic origins, and by using low pitched roofs with wide eave overhangs.